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From Merkelbeek to Märckelbach:
A Social History with Deep Roots


July 3, 2011
Chapter 17.  Charlemagne's legacy    

"Charlemagne was not unusually pious (he was rather earthy, and loved jokes, songs, sex, hunting and swimming, and roast meat—less so drinking, it is claimed), but he introduced an ecclesiastical and moralizing edge to political practice which lasted throughout the Carolingian century and beyond, and which had many ramifications," thus Chris Wickham in his The inheritance of Rome. We shall be interested in all three—the eclasiastical, the moral, and the political—because of their lasting influence. As for the military aspect of Charlemagne's rule, some notes under Temper of the times shall suffice. But first a few words about names.    3

Family names as we know them today were almost non-existent then. Many prominent families were known by the name of a recognized founder of their dynasty, or house. For example, Clovis I was a Merovingian so named after his shadowy grandfather Merovech.* The name Merovingian came into use not later than 640. Charlemagne was a Carolingian, a name that derives from Carolus, i.e. Charles Martel, his grandfather.    4

Charlemagne as depicted in 1512 by Albrecht Dürer with flowing blond hair, due to a misunderstanding of Einhard, who describes Charlemagne as having beautiful white hair, which has been rendered as blonde or fair in many translations. Charlemagne is said to prefer simple, plain clothes.
* The German eagle is achronic. About earlier portraiture, the Roman tradition of realism was in complete eclipse in his time; instead individual traits were submerged in a typecastings that endowed the enthroned Charlemagne, God's representative on Earth, with the majesty of icons of Christ as shown in the next illustration. (Source)    ¶ 5

The Carolingians and the papacy got on well together. Charles Martel's son Pippin the Short, who effectively ruled France under a Merovingian King, Childeric III, wrote then Pope Zacharias whether "in regard to the kings of the Franks who no longer possess the royal power: is this state of things proper?" upon which the pope replied that it was better to call him king who had the royal power than the one who did not. On behest of the pope, Pippin was henceforth anointed king by Boniface, the archbisshop of Mainz (752), symbolizing sacramental or divine influence. Thus Pippin gained in stature whereas the pope gained a militarily strong protector plus an extension of papal spiritual and temporal influence. Later, Peppin gained even greater stature by a second anointing, by the next pope, Stephen II, himself. Peppin's son, Charlemagne, born in 747, was anointed King of the Franks in 768. Charlemagne, too, was anointed a second time, in 800, but now as Emperor of the Romans.* His empire, by historians referred to as the Carolingian empire, was ostensibly a continuation of the Roman empire. By the hindsight of history, it is also seen as the forerunner of the Holy Roman Empire of which Otto I was the first emperor.    7

Charlemagne had an abundance of partners: ten on record.* Small wonder, therefore, that he is an ancestor of many families. But in the case of the Merckelbachs the descendance is not altogether patrilinear as we see under Roots.    9

He refused to allow his daughters to contract sacramental marriages—possibly to prevent the creation of cadet branches of the family to challenge the main line—yet he tolerated their extramarital relationships, even rewarding their common-law husbands, and he treasured his bastard grandchildren. He did not, or refused to, believe stories of their wild escapades. His son and successor, Louis the Pious, banished Charlemagne's surviving daughters from his court to take up residence in convents. At least one daughter, Bertha, had a recognised relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert, a member of Charlemagne's court circle, thus bringing to mind the legend of Emma and Eginhard told in Chapter 6.* Angilbert served Charlemagne as a diplomat, abbot, poet, and semi-son-in-law. Angilbert's non-sacramental relationship with Bertha was evidently recognized by the court. Control of marriage and the meanings of legitimacy were hotly contested in the Middle Ages. Bertha and Angilbert are an example of how resistance to the idea of a sacramental marriage could coincide with holding church offices. On the day of his death, Angilbert was venerated as a saint. The Catholic Encyclopedia informs us that in those days canonizations were very informal and involved little investigation of past conduct or virtue.    10

Charlemagne's native language is a matter of controversy. It was probably a Germanic dialect of the Ripuarian Franks and of which there is no written record. It is related to Dutch and modern dialects in the German North Rhineland, which modern linguists have dubbed Ripuarian. The names he gave his children are indicators of the language he spoke; all of his daughters received Old High German names. Apart from his native language he also spoke Latin "as fluently as his own tongue" and understood a bit of Greek.    11



Temper of the times  18A

The Carolingian era: Timeline  18A

741. A nunnery given by the Alamannic noblewoman Beata on Lützelau island in Lake Zürich is first mentioned. In 744, the nunnery was sold to Einsiedeln Abbey.   18A

742. Birth of Charlemagne.   18A

742. Chrodegang, chancellor of Charles Martel, is appointed bishop of Metz and embarks on a reorganisation of the Frankish church. He was educated at the court of Charles Martel, became his private secretary, then chancellor, and in 737 prime minister. On 1 March, 742, he was appointed Bishop of Metz, retaining his civil office at the request of Pepin. In his influential position St. Chrodegang laboured earnestly for the welfare of Church and State, and was ever solicitous to strengthen the bonds of union between the temporal and spiritual rulers. In his diocese he introduced the Roman Liturgy and chant, community life for the clergy of his cathedral, and wrote a special rule for them.   18A

743. Pepin III and Carloman install the Merovingian Childeric III as king.   18A

743. The Concilium Germanicum, organized by Carloman and Saint Boniface, is the first major synod held in the Frankish church.   18A

743. After an interregnum of seven years, Childeric III re-succeeds to the throne of the Frankish Empire as the last king (till 751) of the figurehead Merovingian dynasty. Power remains firmly in the hands of the major domus, currently Pepin the Short.   18A

745. Bubonic plague in Constantinople subsequently sweeps through Europe.   18A

746. The blood court at Cannstatt (Blutgericht zu Cannstatt) took place as Carloman in 746 invited all nobles of the Alamanni to a council at Cannstatt. According to the annals of Metz, the annales Petaviani and an account by Childebrand, Carloman arrested several thousand noblemen and executed them for high treason. This ended the independence of the duchy of Alemannia, which after this event was ruled by Frankish dukes.   18A

746. The monastery at Tegernsee in Bavaria began brewing its own beer.   18A

747. Carloman retires into a monastery. Pippin the Short remains sole ruler of the Franks as Mayor of the Palace.   18A

747. Plague breaks out in Sicily, Calabria, and Momenvasia.   18A

747. Charlemagne, king and emperor of the Franks (disputed date).   18A

751. Pepin the Short (Pepin III) is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility, marking the end of the Merovingian and beginning of the Carolingian dynasty. He is crowned by bishop Boniface.   18A

754. Pope Stephen II asks for Pepin's aid against the Lombards. Pepin's first Italian campaign. Martyrdom of Boneface in Frisia.   18A

754. Pope Stephen II crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at Saint-Denis outside Paris; also dedicates the foundations of the new abbey church.   18A

755. Pepin the Short sends his armies into Italy to aid the pope against the Lombards.   18A

756. Pepin's second Italian campaign. Stephen III becomes pope.   18A

756. Pepin the Short defeats the Lombards of northern Italy, who have threatened Pope Stephen II(?). Stephen III(?) becomes pope.   18A

756. The Donation of Pepin is a cession of lands including Ravenna that will become the basis of the Papal States.  18A

757. Tassilo III, duke of the Bavarians, recognizes the supremacy of Frankish king Pepin the Short.   18A

757. Paul I becomes pope upon death of Stephen II.   18A

759. The Franks capture Narbonne; the Saracens are completely driven out of France.   18A

767/8 Pepin completes conquest of Aquitania. Death of Paul I. Conflict between popes.   18A

768. Pepin III (714–768), king of the Franks since 751, dies. The brothers Carloman and Charles divide his kingdom, Carloman to rule over the eastern Franks, Charles, aka Charlemagne over the western Franks.   18A

769. Pope Stephen III holds a council; papal election procedure is changed and the devotion to icons is confirmed.   18A

770. Birth of Pepin the Hunchback.   18A

771. Carloman I, King of the Franks, dies, leaving his brother Charlemagne king of the now complete Frankish kingdom.   18A

772. Charlemagne starts fighting the Saxons and the Frisians.   18A

772. Death of Stephen III. Hadrian I becomes pope; he appeals for Frankish help.   18A

773/4. At request of the Pope Adrian I, Charlemagne crosses the Alps and invades and conquers the kingdom of the Lombards headed by the king Desiderius and takes title King of the Lombards.  18A

775. Charlemagne begins his campaign into Westphalia.   18A

775. Gerberga, the widow of Carloman, flees to Desiderius, the king of the Lombards.   18A

776. April 14 – Charlemagne spends Easter in Treviso after putting down a revolt by Friuli and Spoleto, removing Hrodgaud, the Duke of Friuli, from power, and signing a treaty with Hildeprand, the Duke of Spoleto. Co-conspirators in the revolt are Arechis, Duke of Benevento, and Adelchis, the son of Desiderius. Charlemagne had defeated Desiderius two years earlier, and Adelchis had fled to Byzantium. Arechis was not defeated in this action by Charlemagne, and Adelchis never left Byzantium to provide any support to the revolt.   18A

777. Charlemagne defeats the Saxons; their leader Widukind flees to Denmark.   18A

778. Spanish campaign. Charlemagne's army suffers a terrible defeat at the hand of the Basques during the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (Roncesvalles). Among those killed is Roland, lord of the Breton March. The 11th-century Song of Roland is loosely based on the events of this battle.   18A

778. Charlemagne fights the Moors in Spain.   18A

778. Widukind returns to Saxony from Denmark.   18A

781. Charlemagne defines the Papal territory (see Papal States).   18A

781. Alcuin becomes Charlemagne's chief adviser on religious and educational matters.   18A

781. Italian campaign. Pepin and Louis crowned by the pope.   18A

782. Charlemagne summons the monk and scholar Alcuin of York to head the palace school at Aachen in order to inspire the revival of education in Europe.   18A

782. Charlemagne orders the massacre of 4500 Saxons at Verden.   18A

785. Baptism of Widukind. End of first phase of Saxon wars.   18A

786. Count Hadrad's abortive revolt.   18A

787. Italian campaignin which Duke Archis of Benvento is defeated.Bavaria annexed to Frankish crown.   18A

788. Charlemagne conquers Bavaria. State trial of Tassilo III.   18A

789. The Admonitio Generalis is passed by Charlemagne.s.   18A

790. Alcuin is principal of the 'court school.' Alcuin returns to England.   18A

790. Charlemagne issues the Libri Carolini against image worshop.   18A

790. Angilbert is made abbot of Saint-Riquier. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angilbert   18A

791. The Avars invade Europe again, but are defeated by Charlemagne.   18A

792. The Westphalians rise up against the Saxons (see Charlemagne). Renewed Saxon war. Revolt of Pepin the Hunchback.   18A

793. The Frisian–Frankish wars came to an end with the last uprising of the Frisians in 793.   18A

794. Council of Frankfurt condemns image worship and Adaptionism.   18A

795. Leon II 9or III) succeeds Hadrian I as pope.   18A

796. Conquest of the Avars. Beginning of a major building canpaign at Aachen. Alcuin leaves court for his abbey at Tours.   18A

798. In the Battle of Bornhöved Slavic Obodrites led by Drożko defeated the Nordalbingian Saxons. In the coming years they were granted areas of nowadays Hamburg.   18A

799. Pope Leo III attacked and deposed. He goes to Paderborn to seek Charlemagne's aid. Aided by Charlemagne he returns to Rome.   18A

800. Charlemagne restores Pope Leo III. Leo III crowns Charlemagne as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome.   18A

800. First Viking raids on Frankish territory.   18A

800. Harun al-Raschid sends ambassadors to Charlemagne's court.   18A

801. Louis the Pious occupies Barcelona.   18A

802. Council of Aachen imposes a general oath of loyalty to the emperor. Sporadic Viking raids along the North Sea and hannel coasts.   18A

803. Nicephorus I of the Byzantine Empire and Charlemagne of the Holy Roman Empire settle their imperial boundaries and sign Pax Nicephori.   18A

803 Nicephorus I of the Byzantine Empire and Charlemagne of the Holy Roman Empire settle their imperial boundaries and sign Pax Nicephori.

803. Stiftskeller St. Peter, possibly Central Europe's oldest restaurant is founded.   18A

804. Charlemagne finishes the conquest of Saxony.   18A

805. The Battle of Canburg is fought between Charlemagne and the Slavs.   18A

806. Charlemagne divides his empire between his three sons.   18A

808. Danish invasion.   18A

809. Pepin fails to suppress Venetian revolt. Death of Harun al-Raschid.   18A

810. Death of Prince Pepin. His son Bernard becomes king of Italy. King Godfred of Denmark murdered. Peace between Denmark and Francia.   18A

811. Death of Prince Charles and Pepin the Hunchback.   18A

812. Byzantine emperor Michael I recognizes Charlemagne's imperial title.   18A

812. The second Battle of Roncevaux Pass is fought between the Basques and the Franks.   18A

813. Louis the Pious is crowned co-emperor of the Franks with his father Charlemagne.  18A

813. Third Council of Tours: Priests are ordered to preach in the vernacular (either Vulgar Latin or German).   18A

813. Charlemagne crowns Prince Louis as joint-emperor.   18A

814. Charlemagne dies in Aachen, aged 67 or 72 (depending on source)   18A

814. Death of Charlemagne. Louis the Pious succeeds as sole emperor.   18A

816. Frankish king Louis the Pious is crowned emperor by Pope Stephen IV.   18A

817. Louis divides his empire between his sones. Rebellion of Bernard, who is killed by Louis.   18A

816. Stephen IV succeeds Leo III as pope.   18A

817. Louis the Pious divides his empire among his sons; Louis the German becomes king of East Francia, Lothar I becomes co-emperor.   18A

< class="small">???. Pope Stephen IV succeeded by Paschal I.   18A

824. Third Battle of Roncevaux Pass: The Basques and Banu Qasi defeat counts Eblo and Aznar, Frankish vassals.   18A

824. Iñigo Arista revolts against the Franks and establishes the kingdom of Navarre (approximate date).   18A

824. The Constitutio Romana establishes the authority of the Holy Roman Emperors over the pope.   18A

825. Emperor Louis the Pious of the Franks wars against the Wends and Sorbs.   18A

827. Arab conquest of Sicily and Sardinia.   18A

832. Pepin I of Aquitaine and Louis the German revolt against Louis the Pious, Emperor of the Franks.   18A

832. Theophilus forbids the usage of icons, establishing strict punishments.   18A

832. The second St Mark's Basilica in Venice (replacing an older church at a different location) is built.   18A

833. Louis the Pious deposed by his sons.   18A

834. The Vikings first raid Dorestad (present-day Netherlands).   18A

835. Louis the Pious restored to his throne.   18A

835. The celebration of All Saints is made an obligation throughout the Frankish Empire and fixed on November 1.  18A

835. The Vikings raid Dorestad.  18A

836. Oldest known mentioning of the city of Soest, Germany.   18A

837. The Frankish empire divided between Louis the Pious and his son Lothar.   18A

838. Arabs invade southern Italy and Marseille.   18A

839. Louis the Pious attempts to divide his empire among his sons. Death of Louis the Pious. Lothar I becomes emperor.   18A

840. After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German fight over the division of the Holy Roman Empire, with Lothar succeeding as Emperor.   18A

841. June 25 – Battle of Fontenay: Louis the German and Charles the Bald defeat Lothar.   18A

841. Vikings sack Rouen and Paris.   18A

842. February 14 – Charles the Bald and Louis the German sign a treaty. The Oaths of Strasbourg, an alliance of Louis the German and Charles the Bald against emperor Lothar, are sworn and recorded in the vernacular languages.   18A

843. Treaty of Verdun divides the Frankish empire between Lothar and his brothers. End of the united Frankis empire.   18A

Elsewhere  18A

741. Japanese authorities decree that Buddhist temples should be established throughout the country.    ¶ 18A

742. Chinese poet Li Po is presented before the emperor and given a position in the Imperial court (approximate date).   18A

742. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang begins to favor Taoism over Buddhism, adopting the new reign title Tianbao ('Heavenly Treasures') to indicate his divine mandate.  18A

746. Hida-Kokubunji Temple in Japan is built to pray for peace and prosperity.    ¶ 18A

748. The first printed newspaper appears in Beijing, China.    ¶ 18A

751. The oldest surviving printed document, a Buddhist scripture, is printed in Korea.  18A

755. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle suddenly changes in style, from short descriptions to true short stories. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The annals were initially created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great. Multiple manuscript copies were made and distributed to monasteries across England and were independently updated. In one case, the chronicle was still being actively updated in 1154.   18A

756. Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and re-establishes the Umayyad dynasty at Cordoba in modern Spain.   18A

758. During the turmoil of the An Shi Rebellion, the Chinese seaport Guangzhou is sacked by Arab and Persian raiders. The port is shut down for the next five decades while foreign vessels dock at Hanoi instead, yet Guangzhou thrives again once it is reopened to foreign trade in the early 9th century.   18A

767. Constantine II becomes antipope.   18A

772. Lombard king Desiderius captures Rome from the Byzantine Empire.   18A

772. Caliph Al-Mansur orders Christians and Jews in Jerusalem to be stamped on their hands with a distinctive symbol.   18A

775. Andalusian merchants set up an emporium on the Maghribi coast at Ténès. It is an early evidence of the revival of the maritime trade in the Western Mediterranean after the chaos of the 8th century.   18A

775. Estimation: Baghdad, capital of the Abbasid Empire, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Chang'an, capital of China.   18A

780. Borobudur, a Buddhist temple complex, is begun (approximate date).   18A

784. The Chinese engineer and prince Li Gao invents a successful model of a paddle-wheel ship.  18A

785/6. The construction of the Prayer hall, Great Mosque of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain, is started.   18A

786. Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad upon the death of his brother al-Hadi, and appoints Salim Yunisi as the Abbasid governor of Sindh and the Indus Valley; beginning of a golden age of Islamic culture. He rules until 809.   18A

789. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the first appearance of Vikings in England.   18A

792. Hisham I calls for a jihad.   18A

793. Vikings sack the monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria, their first major viking attack in England.   18A

793. A jihad under Hisham I takes place.   18A

797. In the Byzantine empire, Irene deposes Constantine VI and, perhaps, contemplates marriage to Charlemagne.   18A

802. Jayavarman II declares the Khmer Empire independent and establishes the kingdom of Angkor.   18A

810. Book of Kells is completed by the Celts. The Book of Kells (Irish: Leabhar Cheanannais) (Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I. (58), sometimes known as the Book of Columba) is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables. It was created by Celtic monks ca. 800 or slightly earlier. The text of the Gospels is largely drawn from the Vulgate, although it also includes several passages drawn from the earlier versions of the Bible known as the Vetus Latina. It is a masterwork of Western calligraphy and represents the pinnacle of Insular illumination. It is also widely regarded as Ireland's finest national treasure. The illustrations and ornamentation of the Book of Kells surpass that of other Insular Gospel books in extravagance and complexity. The decoration combines traditional Christian iconography with the ornate swirling motifs typical of Insular art. Figures of humans, animals and mythical beasts, together with Celtic knots and interlacing patterns in vibrant colours, enliven the manuscript's pages. Many of these minor decorative elements are imbued with Christian symbolism and so further emphasise the themes of the major illustrations.  18A

812. The Chinese government takes over the issuing of paper bank drafts, the ancestor of paper money.   18A

813. The Baghdad School of Astronomy is opened by al-Mamun.   18A

814. The iconoclasts regain power in the Byzantine Empire.   18A

814. Conflict erupts between Emperor Leo V and Patriarch Nicephorus on the subject of iconoclasm; Leo deposes Nicephorus, Nicephorus excommunicates Leo.   18A

820. Muslim mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Ḵwārizmī founds algebra.   18A

820. Rapid dismemberment of the Abassid caliphate due to religious divisions.   18A

827. Chalid Ben Abdulmelik and Ali Ben Isa measure the size of the Earth.   18A

828. Relics of Saint Mark are brought to Venice from Alexandria. Mark the Evangelist (Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Μαρκοϲ; Hebrew: מרקוס‎) is the traditional author of the Gospel of Mark. He is one of the Seventy Disciples of Christ, and the founder of the Church of Alexandria, one of the original four main sees of Christianity.   18A

830. Borobodur is completed as a Buddhist monument, after about 50 years of work.   18A

833. A biography of Muhammad by Ibn Ishaq is edited.   18A

835. Ragnar Lodbrok rises to power (approximate date). The namesake and subject of “Ragnar’s Saga”, and one of the most popular Viking heroes among the Norse themselves, Ragnar was a great Viking commander and the scourge of France and England.   18A

835. The Vikings raid Dorestad.   18A

837. Vikings from Scandinavia attack Constantinople.   18A

837. April 10 – Comet Halley passes approximately 5 million km from Earth – its closest ever approach to Earth.   18A

838. The Khazars convert to Judaism (approximate date). The Khazars were semi-nomadic Turkic people who established one of the largest polities of medieval Eurasia. During the 9th and 10th centuries, Khazaria was one of the major arteries of commerce between northern Europe and southwestern Asia, as well as a connection to the Silk Road.  18A

841. In the Chinese capital of Chang'an, the West Market and East Market are closed every night 1 hour and three quarters before dusk (by government-ordered curfew), yet night markets thrive in residential areas. The local government attempt to shut the night markets down in this year, but with the decline of the government's authority by the mid 9th century, this edict (like many others) is largely ignored as urban dwellers keep attending the night markets regardless.   18A

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Legend has it that Merovech is the offspring of his mother's chance encounter with a sea monster. It is said that this might be the origin of the notion that blue blood is a halmark of European nobility, same as for sea animals, believe it or not[>]   ¶ fn1

According to his biographer Einhard (~775–840), Charlemagne wore the traditional, inconspicuous and distinctly non-aristocratic costume of the Frankish people, Next to his skin he wore a linen shirt and linen breeches, and above these a tunic fringed with silk; while hose fastened by bands covered his lower limbs, and shoes his feet. Winters, he wore a short, close-fitting coat of otter or marten skins. On special occasions, he wore fancy jewelled swords. He despised foreign costumes, however handsome, and never allowed himself to be robed in them, except twice in Rome, when he donned the Roman tunic, chlamys, and shoes; the first time at the request of Pope Hadrian, the second to gratify Leo, Hadrian's successor. On great feast days, he wore embroidery and jewels on his clothing and shoes. He had a golden buckle for his cloak on such occasions and would appear with his great diadem. (Source.) [>]   ¶ fn2

A snippet of history seems in order here. In 799, Pope Leo III had been mistreated by the Romans, who tried to put out his eyes and tear out his tongue. Leo escaped, and fled to Paderborn where he asked Charlemagne to intervene in Rome and restore him. Charlemagne agreed to travel to Rome. There, at Christmas mass, when Charlemagne knelt at the altar to pray, the pope crowned him Emperor of the Romans. In so doing, the pope was effectively attempting to transfer the office from Constantinople to Charles. Einhard says that Charlemagne was ignorant of the pope's intent and did not want any such coronation. Many modern scholars suggest that Charlemagne was well aware of the upcoming coronation. Charles then liked to be officially known as "Charles, most serene Augustus crowned by God, the great, peaceful emperor ruling the Roman empire" to the more direct "Emperor of the Romans." (Source.)  [>]   ¶ fn3

Historian Wolfgang Menzel (1798–1873), in his Geschichte der Deutschen, wrote that Charlemagne was married five times and had five concubines. Derek Wilson, in his Charlemagne: Barbarian and Emperor, writes that one shouldn't really divide his many partners simply into wives and concubines because Frankish custom was less rigid and enabled the king to choose whom he would elevate to the position of official queen and thereby legitimate their joint offspring.  [>]    ¶ fn4

Wolfgang Menzel again: "His secretary, young Eginhart, became deeply enamored of his daughter Emma, and the youthful lovers, fearing [Charlemagne's] anger should he discover their affection only met at night. It happened, that one night, whilst Eginhart was in the princess's apartment, a fall of snow took place. To return across the palace court must lead to inevitable discovery by the traces of his footsteps. The moment called for resolution; woman's with came to the assistance of the perplexed lover, and the faithful and prudent Emma, taking her lover on her back, bore him across the court. The emperor, who chanced to be gazing from his window. beheld this strange sight by the clear moonlight, and the next morning sent for the young couple, who stood before him in expectation of being sentences to death, when the generous father bestowed upon Eginhart his daughter's hand, and the Odenwald in fief. The tomb of Eginhart and Emma is still to be seen in Erbach. The counts of Erbach claim from them their descent. Eginhart became a celebrated historian, and it was chiefly through the medium of his pen that the deeds of his great father-in-law were handed down to posterity. Bertha, the second daughter, carried on a similar intrigue with young Engelbert ...." As for Emma and Eginhart, Prof. A.J. Grant (1862–1948) writes in his Two lives of Charlemagne: "[Eginhard] married Imma, a Frankish lady of good family. (It is merely a stupid legend that makes her the daughter of Charlemagne.)"  [>]   ¶ fn5

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